review Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient ↠ E-book or Kindle E-pub

review ↠ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Ð Edward W. Said

يعتبر الاستشراق، انطلاقاً من أواخر القرن الثامن عشر، مؤسسة مشتركة للتعامل مع الشرق وحكمه، إنه أسلوب غربي للسيطرة على الشرق، وإذا لم نكتنه الاستشراق بوصفه إنشاء فلن يكون في وسعنا أن نفهم الفرع المنظم تنظيماً عالياً الذي استطاعت الثقافة الغربية عن طريقه أن تتدبر وتنتج الشرق سياسياً، وعسكرياً، و. This is a fascinatingly interesting book It is also a book that is virtually reuired reading if you are going to say anything at all about post colonialism Whether you agree or disagree with the central theme of the book is almost beside the point This work is seminal and landmark – so it can be avoided only at your own costI’ll get to the central idea of the book in a second but first some advice for people thinking of reading it I think if I only wanted to get an idea of what the book was about but didn’t have time to read 305 pages or so that I would read the preface to the 2003 edition and then read the afterword actually you could probably read those the other way around if you wanted that would probably make even sense The point being that he is so clear and so ‘summary’ in these two parts of the book that as an overview and a way to get at the meat of his argument you would struggle to get a better grounding than those parts of his book The rest of the book is a bit for the kind of person who likes ‘completeness’ Look it is all beautifully written and utterly fascinating too – but like I said life is short and this is the sort of book that covers ground that you might feel you really need coveredSo what’s it all about Well Orientalism probably doesn’t mean what you might first think You might assume that it has something to do with China – which isn’t uite where he is coming from Said is tracing the history of an idea and in that idea the exotic East was the Middle East long before it was the Far East That is what makes this book essential reading If there is one thing that is increasingly being used to define our understanding of the world today – in the way that the Cold War defined our world for large parts of the 20th Century – it is the relationship between the West and Islam We are constantly told that Islam is monolithic that Islamofascists are wanting to impose Sharia Law on a hapless and ‘too democratic for our own good’ West That we are pluralistic they are clones The main lesson of this book is to beware as soon as anyone starts using the word WE It can be the most dangerous word in the language But the similarities between the pluralist US and the monolithic THEM so reminded me of the East West cold war that it was terrifyingThe Orient has long been a place where Westerners have projected their lusts their dreams and their nightmares Much of what is said about the East in this book by ‘Orientalists’ confirms masturbatory desires on behalf of the Orientalists themselves than it says about life in the Middle EastIn fact Orientalism says infinitely about the West than it does about whatever we choose define as the Orient The problem is one of essentialism East is East and West is West and neither the twain shall meet – but not only is this geographically stupid for it to be true in any sense it relies on a definition of the two ‘diametrically opposed’ opposites that must be taken as being real and total explanations before you start It reuires us to have a single notion of what a Muslim is – as if this religion covering so many millions of people and having lasted for centuries and centuries could really somehow remain self identical across all of that time and all of that space Such an idea ought to be utterly ludicrous after a moment’s reflection not that such ideas ever really get even a moment’s reflection – but our desire for a simple and clear and easily defined enemy is such that we lump together Seventh Century Arabs with Twenty First Century Indonesians as if they were all identicalAnd it gets worse Not only are they all the same but they are also too stupid to even understand the first thing about themselves It is only because of we remarkably generous Westerners being able to explain their history to them their language society and character that they have any ideas about themselves at all This is the role of the Orientalist a role he and from what I can gather from this book it does seem to virtually always be a he has played rather consistently over the centuriesWhat is particularly interesting here is that Said says Orientalists don’t really treat the Orient as if it was a place in space or time but rather as a text – written once and then indelible The Orient really reached its glory days a long time ago – you have to remember that much of our mathematics and virtually all of our Classical Philosophy came from Islamic scholars So to explain this we need to see Islam and the Orient as a culture in decay a culture that is degenerating But still a text nonetheless And a text that can only be read by a properly schooled Western scholar And what is the appropriate schooling for such a scholar Well not necessarily Oriental texts as you might think – but rather texts about the Orient by previous Oriental scholars This is like an entire school of Shakespeare scholarship that never actually refers to any of the poems or plays but rather discusses previous works of scholarship on Shakespeare And like such scholarship the assumption is that the plays never change – just as it is assumed the Orient and those who live there never changes either You can understand the Muslim mind by reading the Koran – in a way that you can’t understand the Western mind by reading the BibleOf course our television makes this unity of the Orient something that is self evident Other than Israel the rest of the region is self identical This was made particularly clear during the so called Arab Spring when an image of an Arab in headgear shaking his fist could have been someone revolting in Libya or Tunisia or Egypt or Syria – and fortunately from our perspective in the West all of these countries were identical and had identical problems and were resolving those identical problems in exactly the same way Through unreason and violence – that is a particularly Oriental and non Western wayIf this book is anything it is a plea for us to recognise the humanity of the other – of the Arab other in this case One of the things I’ve become increasingly concerned about is what I call aggregated facts For example when I hear that the USA spends on healthcare than any other nation or how much an average Australian spends on education I become worried People who talk in averages are not to be trusted – there a generalisation you can rely on in a review telling you not to rely on generalisations What people who talk in averages are about to say next is generally a lie ‘How can there be a problem when America already spends on healthcare than any other nation on earth’ ‘How can Australia need the Gonski Report we already spend a fortune on education’ But averages mask how much is going to some people and how little is going to others Averages are lies told in numbers Aggregating humans as if all you need to say about them is that they are Arabs or Americans or Australians and then thinking that is somehow all you needed to say that a single label can explain entire human cultures is the stuff of racist fantasy That so many otherwise rational and intelligent people have fallen into this trap yes I’m looking at you Hitchens – but not only you and have done so repeatedly is to all of our shameUnfortunately the work of learning about other cultures cannot be done by pouring them into a single bucket and giving them a single name People are insanely complex and the societies they make are even so To imagine for a second that by calling a society Arabic or Islamic suddenly makes it any easier to understand says far about the person pointing their finger and calling names than it does about those on the receiving endOf course this doesn’t only go for Arabs – or even just those living in Asia – but this is a common theme for all people who we think of as being different from ourselves and so group into a single mass This book is a mirror held up before us whoever that US is – we should have the courage to look suarely into that mirror and learn the lesson it is trying to teach usHighly recommended essential reading

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Orientalism Western Conceptions of the Orientسعيد في كتابه هذا عن الاستشراق الذي احتل مركز السيادة بحيث فرض قيوده على الفكر الشرقي وحتى على من يكتبون عن الشرق وغاية حديثه هذا هو الوصول الى كيفية حدوث كل ذلك ليكشف عنه وليظهر أن الثقافة الغربية اكتسبت المزيد من القوة والهوية بوضع نفسها موضع التضاد مع الشرق باعتباره ذاتاً بديلة النيل والفرات. Yes in many ways Said's Orientalism is a classic And he's right about some things Western art and literature created a whole fantasy world about the Orient which included the Balkans and Russia over the last few centuries; Western scholarship about North Africa or the Middle East or India could be and was used by colonial powers But as critics especially Bernard Lewis and Robert Irwinhave pointed out Said took a handful of serious ideas and created his own fantasy world of Orientalism destroying as Lewis lamented a perfectly honorable scholarly term Said and his followers very nearly argue that any Western study of the Orient is invalid and nefarious from the start and that any scholarship by Westerners is a tool of oppression and political domination Said notoriously got the careers and beliefs of the great Orientalists of the 18th and 19th centuries wrong and despite some fine writing produced in the end a book that conflated artistic and literary visions with intelligence gathered for conuest or rule and which came close to saying that only scholarship with a correct political message about the Middle East could ever be acceptable A necessary read but one that has to be complemented with a reading of Lewis' critiues and the debates between the two and perhaps since the critiue is from the Left even so by reading Robert Irwin's Dangerous Knowledge

Edward W. Said Ð 9 download

review Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient ↠ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Û يعتبر الاستشراق، انطلاقاً من أواخر القرن الثامن عشر، مؤسسة مشتركة للتعامل مع الشرق وحكمه، إنه أسلوب غربي للسيطرة على العلمياً إضافة الى الحدود المعوقة التي فرضها الاستشراق على الفكر والفعليأتي الكتاب في هذا الإطار وفيه يتناول إدوارد سعيد موضوع الاستشراق وخلفياته وكيف استطاعت الثقافة الغربية من خلاله ان تتدبر الشرق وحتى أن تنتجه سياسياً واجتماعياً وعسكرياً وعقائدياً وعلمياً وتخيلياً ومن جهة أخرى يتحدث إدوارد. An amazing classic book from the late Edward Saïd about the origins of the Western view of the Orient that shaped literature and music in the 17th 20th century It is a penetrating view of various racial stereotypes of Arab peoples dressed in sheets smoking hookahs and generally under educated and prone to laziness and violence that pervades all levels of society and served the interests of colonialism to appease consciences of all the violence and subjugation that occurred in China India the Middle East and Northern Africa Particularly in these troubled times with racial slurs against Muslims becoming common currency amd electoral policy it remains relevant and eye opening Highly recommended along with its seuel Culture and Imperialism