Free download Surveiller et punir: Naissance de la prison õ PDF eBook or Kindle ePUB

Download í PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Michel Foucault

Download í PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Michel Foucault ? مصطلحان يرى فوكو أنهما متصلان ببعضهما بشكل جذري، حتى أنه يستخدمهما غالباً مقترنتين أو مدمجتين على نحو power knowledge معرفة ـ سلطة المزيد من الرؤية يقود إلى سلطة تتربع على مستوى متزايد من الفردية، يظهر من خلال قدرة المؤسسة على تعقب ومراقبة الأفراد طوال حياتهم يشير فوكو إلى رهاب مستمر وشعور دائم بالرقابة يسري في المجتمع الحديث، بدءاً من السجون شديدة التحصين، المنازل المحمية، الموظفون، الشرطة، المعلمون، وصولاً إلى كل نشاطاتنا اليومية وظروف معيشتنا وسكنانا كلها مرتبطة بالمراقبة المتنبهة أو الغافلة التي يقوم بها بعض الناس تجاه البعض الآخر، للتحقق من التزامهم بأنماط السلوك المقبولةهذه النبذه من موقع ويكيبيديا ورابطها. In many ways a response to the French government's penal codes of the 60s and 70s but also a continuation of Foucault's work in Madness and Civilization the influence of DP can be seen everywhere from Spielberg's Minority Report to Enemy of the State to Ted Conover's Newjack and most if not all critiues of surveillant governments It's also a horrifying read starting out as it does with an account of the ritualistic execution of a regicide which Foucault compares favorably to the prisons of the Enlightenment The general thrust is that under the guise of humanism Europeans decided on punishing the soul rather than the body This they accomplished first by uite theatrically monitoring prisoners and delinuents and eventually by having prisoners monitor themselves saving the government all the workI personally don't think Discipline and Punish is the strongest of Foucault's works though Partly I think he misunderstands the nature of physical violence His strategy here and in MC is to lay out a pretty sinister historical transition in the way states used their power passing over counterexamples that might disprove his point Australia anyone and then allow the reader to assume that the trend he has identified continues to this very moment You're supposed to wonder is the videocamera in my bank gasp part of the Panopticon Have I been deprived of my free will and become a tool of the State Harold Bloom rightly complains of Foucault that he tended to forget that the historical ironies he uncovered were just metaphors and aren't as all encompassing as his many followers in academe suppose Mikey's History of Sexuality books are much closely reasoned or at least Introduction is and what I've read of Uses of Pleasure The problem is that you can carp all day about DP but you will continue to see it everywhere long after you've set it down That makes it an amazing book

Free read Surveiller et punir: Naissance de la prison

Free download Surveiller et punir: Naissance de la prison õ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Î هو كتاب للفيلسوف والباحث الفرنسي ميشيل فوكو ويبدأ الكتاب برسم تصويري لعملية تنفيذ حكم الإعدام عام 1757 على روبرت فرا هو كتاب للفيلسوف والباحث الفرنسي ميشيل فوكو ويبدأ الكتاب برسم تصويري لعملية تنفيذ حكم الإعدام عام 1757 على روبرت فرانسوا ديمي، الذي حاول اغتيال لويس الخامس عشر وفي الصفحة المقابلة وضع صورة لمخطط سجن صمم بعد 80 عاماً فقط ويتساءل فوكو عن الطريقة التي تغير من خلالها المجتمع الفرنسي فيما يخص معاقبة المدانين في مدة قصيرة إلى هذا الحد هاتان صورتان لنمطين متقابلين مما يسمه فوكو تكنولوجيا العقاب النمط الأول، العقاب الملكي، يشتمل على قمع الجماهير من خلال تنفيذ عمليات إعدام وتعذيب وحشية علنية النمط الثاني، العقاب التأديبي، وما يقول فوكو بأنه يمارس في العصر الحديث يمنح العقاب التأديبي كلاً من المعالج النفسي، منفذ البرامج،. This book begins with a bang – in fact a series of bangs That is the point you see We need to be shocked about what is after all our relatively recent past We too easily forget that there was a time when ‘people like us’ actually span back in history for nearly as far as the mind could imagine Now we struggle to believe that people who lived 20 or 30 years ago where uite like us – even when we ourselves were those people Today we cast off selves and disown past selves like our endlessly cheap clothes – cheaper to buy than to wash as someone pointed out recently – or like snakes and their skins cicadas and their chrysalises For as Foucault points out here the point of history isn’t for us to understand the past – that is dead and gone and has only the meaning we can give it from our vantage point – the point of history is to provide the narrative that helps us to understand the presentI want to start with one of the uotes that go off with a bang at the start of this book – that shock us by how distant our world seems moved from that of a few hundred years ago“in 1584 the assassin of William of Orange was abandoned to what seems like an infinity of vengeance 'On the first day he was taken to the suare where he found a cauldron of boiling water in which was submerged the arm with which he had committed the crime The next day the arm was cut off and since it fell at his feet he was constantly kicking it up and down the scaffold; on the third day red hot pincers were applied to his breasts and the front of his arm; on the fourth day the pincers were applied similarly on the back of his arm and on his buttocks; and thus consecutively this man was tortured for eighteen days' On the last day he was put to the wheel and 'mailloté' beaten with a wooden club After six hours he was still asking for water which was not given him 'Finally the police magistrate was begged to put an end to him by strangling so that his soul should not despair and be lost'”The spectacle of eighteen days of public torture seems extraordinary to us Perhaps what is most shocking is the level of vengeance that is taken on the body of the guilty man A transgression of the law – and the law at the time was represented in the body and in the will of the king – was eually revenged on the body of the transgressor The problem was that this expression of state power was far too often arbitrary and grossly overwrought As in the example above the vengeance of the state seems to know no bounds However and I guess ironically too the state king was also able to pardon – that is reserved the right to decide when and how the law might be applied – and this arbitrary law effectively undermined the state’s own moral authorityWe like to see our world as one on a kind of slow incline towards progress And let’s face it it would be hard to read the description above and not think that from that particular south pole of inhumanity no matter which way we might have gone would have probably been ‘up’Our particular path up from that nadir was to decided that it was unreasonable to punish people’s bodies that what we needed was to punish or correct rather their souls Now this is only partly true for as Guantánamo Bay and Abu Ghraib prove we still like to get off on torture All the same there was a clear shift in policy away from torture of bodies towards using punishment as means of making an example of the criminal and also perhaps being able to reform them The focus shifted to the souls of the wrong doers – but also on the social conseuences of their crimes It wasn’t any longer a matter of ‘an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth’ instead you might get punished for a crime that might hardly harm any one single person but have large social conseuences Punishments were increasingly seen as ways of improving both the individual and society – and therefore punishments tended to need to be seen as being ‘just’ – rather than an arbitrary expression of the will of the ruler That is punishments could no longer be ‘excessive’ in the way they had been before They had to ‘match’ the crime The punishment had to make risking doing the crime simply not worth it The punishment also had to encourage the criminal to live a good life that is the punishment ought to make the crime abhorrent to the criminal That is punishment needed a pedagogical function – it needs to teach the criminal the ‘right way’ to live one’s life I couldn’t help throughout this book thinking of ‘re education camps’ and how we imagine changing a label from re education to rehabilitation can allow us believe what we do is so much better than what those nasty communists did To understand how to be good reuires a particular kind of knowledge Knowledge then is a direct conseuence of power of state power – and true knowledge is aligned with the exercise of power Ok that might sound like rubbish – but I think it is a remarkably interesting point To punish someone now means two things you have some idea of what is the right way to live a life and that if you inflict a certain punishment on a person that punishment will thereby make them a better person Ever since Socrates the idea has been that if someone understands ‘the good’ then they must also act in accordance with that knowledge Well if people are acting in ways that are not in accordance with the laws and the laws are naturally enough to those who make them completely rational and totally in accordance with ‘the good’ then the role of punishment isn’t so much to get revenge on those who break the laws but rather to help them to better understand the good – that is to help them to become rational agents in society Punishment is about re educating those who transgress society’s laws because only those without reason would ever break these laws Knowledge and Law and therefore also Power are all instances of the same thingThere is a wonderful bit in Stephen Fry’s Moab is My Washpot where he says that having been at an English Public School meant that he had much less difficulty adjusting to prison life than other people That a boarding school was run in much the same way that a prison is run and so it all seemed uite normal to him This is Foucault’s point exactly I thinkI need to talk about how you change people’s souls now – and therefore I need to talk about Foucault’s most fascinating metaphor – that of Bentham’s Panopticon The Panopticon was designed to be an ‘ideal prison’ – and it was literally ideal never actually having been built The point is that the ‘ideal’ often helps explain the actual world It is probably easier if you just Google Panopticon – but the basic idea is to build a prison in which all of the cells are in the circumference of a circular building while at the centre of the circular prison there is a tower Inside the tower is a guard or citizens who have dropped by to see that the prisoners are reforming The cells on the circumference of the circular building all have two windows – one facing into the centre of the building and the other on the opposite wall looking out The second window looking out provides light into the cell – the window facing the tower means that the prisoner can be watched at any time of the day or night by the guard The whole thing is designed so that the prisoner just doesn't know if or when the guard is watching – but the prisoner does know that there is no time when the guard will definitely not be watching It is all a bit like God – constantly watching to constantly provide you with a conscience or what is the next best thing to a conscience as you act as if you are doing right for its own sake even though you are doing right just in case you get caught doing wrongThere was also the problem of having lots of criminals in one place that needed to be addressed so as to stop that one place becoming a university of criminality So prisoners were not allowed to talk to one another And they were kept in isolation for long periods of time All the better to allow the voice of the prisoner’s conscience to work on them and thereby to help teach them right from wrongThe secret to right moral action then is than just the relationship between knowledge and power – but also of proper surveillance And surveillance now dominates our lives And not just the cameras that are everywhere filming our every movement But also in our obsession with tests in schools and performance reviews at work To Foucault the panopticon was not just a model for the ideal prison but also for the ideal hospital factory and school He points out that this surveillance has meant turning our lives into texts There was a time when only the heroes of our world had books written about them today we are our high school report cards our credit ratings our performance review results our medical history cardsOne of the things Foucault does that I find utterly fascinating is to look at the etymology of words and to show how earlier meanings hang around the word’s usage today like ghosts In this book he points out that the word discipline has always had the dual meaning it has today – a discipline as an area of study and discipline as in being forced to behave correctly This seems terribly important to meLike in Orwell’s 1984 – the terrifying vision here is that power always acts in ways that are essentially inhuman I’m certainly not advocating going back to a time when killing a king might involve you in 18 days of unspeakable torture – but then one has only to read The Shock Doctrine The Rise of Disaster Capitalism to know we use torture today in ways that would make O’Brien blush with pride We are shocked when we learn of the surveillance used by the Stasi – and rightly so – but we actively sign up so that international corporations can monitor every single item we purchase so as to better sell to us because they might agree to giving us a free chocolate bar every year or so But then what is the point of freedom and privacy if you can’t trade it for some chocolateThis is a very disturbing book – it is also a must read

Michel Foucault ↠ 6 Free download

Surveiller et punir Naissance de la prisonالضابط في السجن سلطة على السجين أو المتعلم أو المريض، ومما يلفت الانتباه أن المدة التي يتوجب على السجين مثلاً أن يقضيها في السجن تتوقف على رأي المختصينيقارن فوكو في بحثه ما بين المجتمع الحديث وبين المشتمل وهو تصميم أعده جيرمي بينتامز لمبنى سجن وهذا التصميم لم ينفذ بشكله الأصلي في الواقع، لكنه كان ذي تأثير واضح، في المشتمل يستطيع حارس واحد أن يراقب عدداً كبيراً من السجناء دون أن يتمكنوا من مشاهدته السراديب المعتمة لسجون ما قبل الحداثة استبدلت بسجون في أبنية حديثة، لكن فوكو يحرص على أن يوضح أن الرؤية أو العين تخدع ويشير إلى أن المجتمع الحديث يستخدم هذه الرؤية لتطبيق نظام التحكم والسيطرة الخاص بالسلطة والمعرفة وهم?. I've read this book three times First time was in undergraduate second time was in law school third time was last week I can honestly say that my understanding of this work has grown with each reading but that growth in comprehension has come from my reading of other books either discussing or related to Discipline and PunishSpecifically I would recommend Jurgen Habermas's critiue of Foucault although I now forget which book of his contains his critiue I would also recommend Goffman's Asylums and Sykes The Society of the Prison as works which can illuminate Foucault's oft dense proseFoucault's main thesis is that the transistion of society into modernity has resulted in institutions which are increasingly devoted to the control of the inmate's time The instituions use this control of time to develop discipline Discipline is then used to both reinforce the strength of the instituion and also to expand the reach of institution's into the communityAs other reviewers have noted this book isn't really about Prisons Rather the development of the modern prison represents the pinnacle of the relationship between power and discipline Foucault leads up to his discussion of the prison by examining developments in other instituions the work shop the school and the barracksI really would encourage admirers of this work to read Goffman's Asylums The two books overlap to a considerable degree but they both complement one another